land and people
Banski Dvori, the seat of the Government, on St Mark’s Square in Zagreb; this historical building was the residence of the Croatian bans (governors) until 1920. Until the shelling in 1991, during the Homeland War, Banski Dvori was the seat of the President of the Republic.
Political organisation

Executive power

The President of the Republic

The President of the Republic represents and acts for the Republic of Croatia at home and abroad. The President is elected pursuant to universal and equal suffrage by direct election for a period of five years.

The President of the Republic provides for the regular, balanced operation and stability of state authorities, is responsible for defending the state's independence and territorial integrity, is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, calls elections to the Croatian Parliament and convenes its first sitting, calls referenda, confides the mandate to form the Government, grants pardons, confers decorations and awards, and cooperates with the Government in forming and implementing foreign policy.

Presidents to the present day

Zoran Milanović (born 1966), diplomat and politician. He served as advisor at the Croatian mission to the EU and NATO in Brussels 1996–99, as the president of the Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP) 2007–16, and as the Prime Minister of Croatia 2011–16. He was elected as the President of Croatia in 2020, as the SDP's candidate.
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (1968), diplomat and politician. Minister of European Integration, 2003–05; Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, 2005–08; Ambassador to the United States of America, 2008–11; NATO Assistant Secretary General for Public Diplomacy, 2011–14. She was elected president in 2015 as the candidate of the Croatian Democratic Union.
Ivo Josipović (1957), a university law professor and composer, was a member of parliament from 2004 to 2008. He was elected president in 2010 as the Social Democrat Party candidate.
Stjepan Mesić (1934), a lawyer and politician, participated in the Croatian Spring. He was an associate of Franjo Tuđman, but parted ways with him in 1994. He was the Croatian representative in the Yugoslav Presidency, and its last president in 1991. He was elected President of Croatia in 2000 as the Croatian People's Party candidate and was re-elected in 2005.
Franjo Tuđman (1922–99), statesman and historian. During the Second World War he was a member of the Partisan movement, after the war served in the military, then became the director of Institute for the History of the Workers' Movement, dissident and political prisoner. He was the founder and chief ideologue of HDZ. He was elected president in 1990 in the Parliament, and in 1992 and 1997 in elections. He led the defence of Croatia and achieved territorial integrity.

The Government

The Government of the Republic of Croatia exercises executive power. It consists of the Prime Minister, one or more Deputy Prime Ministers and other ministers. It is responsible to the Croatian Parliament. The Prime Minister presents the Government to the Croatian Parliament and seeks a vote of confidence. If a majority of members of parliament return a vote of confidence, the Government assumes office.

Banski dvori, seat of the Government, on St Mark's Square in Zagreb; this historical building was the residence of the Croatian bans (governors) until 1920.
Andrej Plenković, Prime Minister and leader of the Croatian Democratic Union since 2016.
Gordan Grlić Radman, Minister of Foreign and European Affairs since 2019.

Prime Ministers to the present day: Stjepan Mesić (1990), Josip Manolić (1990–91), Franjo Gregurić (1991–92), Hrvoje Šarinić (1992–93), Nikica Valentić (1993–95), Zlatko Mateša (1995–2000), Ivica Račan (2000–03), Ivo Sanader (2003–09), Jadranka Kosor (2009–11), Zoran Milanović (2011–16), Tihomir Orešković (2016). Andrej Plenković (since 2016).

The Government proposes laws and other acts to the Croatian Parliament, proposes the State Budget and annual accounts, executes laws and other decisions by the Parliament, adopts decrees to implement the law, conducts internal and foreign policy, directs and supervises the work of the state administration, takes care of the economic development of the country, and directs the performance and development of public services.