The bura, a dry, cold wind which blows from the mainland out to sea, whose gusts can reach hurricane strength, particularly in the channel below Velebit, for example near the town of Senj.

Geography and population

Climate

Thanks to its position in the moderate climate belt along the 45th parallel, Croatia enjoys a predominantly moderate climate, with four clearly marked seasons. Local climate differences are determined primarily by the diversity of the relief and proximity to the Adriatic Sea. The range of the main climate types on the whole corresponds to the three main relief types.

In the Pannonian area, the climate is predominantly warm and humid. Mean January temperatures are between 0 °C and –2 °C, while mean July temperatures are around 22 °C. Mean annual temperatures and temperature amplitudes rise from west to east. Precipitation levels fall from west to east, mostly between 800–1000 mm.

The jugo, a warm wind which carries moisture and causes high waves
The bura, a dry, cold wind which blows from the mainland out to sea, whose gusts can reach hurricane strength, particularly in the channel below Velebit, for example near the town of Senj
Brinje, in Lika, under a blanket of snow

The areas north of the River Sava have most precipitation in May and June, with a secondary high in autumn, while south of the Sava, the maximum precipitation occurs in autumn. Snow stays on the ground for 25–40 days of the year. The highlands also have a continental climate, but with a significantly modified relief: temperatures are lower (in winter from –2 °C to –4 °C and in summer under 20 °C. Precipitation levels are higher, and can be as high as 3000 mm in Gorski Kotar, while snow stays on the ground for 50–60 days of the year.

Climate diagram for the Split and Zagreb stations

The coastal area has a Mediterranean climate. The mean January temperature is 6 °C in the north and 8 °C in the south, while in the hinterland it is 4 °C. Summer temperatures are over 22 °C in all parts. Precipitation is from 800–1000 mm, lower on the islands, and higher on the approaches to the coastal mountain ranges. Most precipitation occurs during the cold part of the year, and the driest months are July and August. Throughout the year, but particularly in winter, weather conditions on the coast are determined by winds, among which the best known are the jugo (south wind) and the bura (north wind).